Rwandaonline’s Blog

Just another WordPress.com weblog

Archive for the ‘RWANDA POLITICS’ Category

WHAT IS HAPPENING AROUND THE COUNTRY

What they don’t tell you about Rwanda

Posted by rwandaonline on October 27, 2009

What they don’t tell you about Rwanda

 

Published on 04/10/2009

 

By Yash Ghai

Rwanda enjoys a positive reputation internationally and its President Paul Kagame is regularly praised by the World Bank, the US, and UK administrations for his integrity, efforts at reconciliation, and economic policies. I was impressed by his advice to Kenyans at the national prayer breakfast last May to follow his government’s example of commitment to ethnic diversity, consensus building on the common good, national values, and inclusion of all political views in national life and development agenda.

When I visited Rwanda at the request of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative to do a report on the state of human rights and democracy in Rwanda (in connection with Rwanda’s application to join the Commonwealth) my first impressions, despite some critical reports I had read, were favourable: Very efficient and courteous processing of incoming passengers, a safe, clean and well organised Kigali, and bright and suave officials.

However, I was put on guard when every non-official person I interviewed, diplomats, journalists, professionals, and local and international civil society officers, would not speak to me except on assurances of anonymity.

When I read the constitution, I found no mention of ethnic or religious groups, and came across legislation, which banned discussion of ethnicity (yet huge government posters reminded people of the “genocide against the Tutsi”, although of course many Hutus had also been massacred). Those who imply that Kagame’s Rwanda Patriotic Front had killed Hutus unnecessarily are heavily penalised, as are those who question official accounts of the genocide. This hardly fits with Kagame’s advocacy of reconciliation, inclusion or coming to terms with the past.

Exiled hutus

Reading numerous reports of the UN Security Council, UNHCR or international NGOs, memoirs of some key Rwandan politicians and of the commander of the UN forces Romeo Dallaire, and scholarly literature, I learnt that, though of course the Tutsi had suffered greatly at the hands of a large number of Hutus, the RPF had also killed thousands of Hutus, and driven many to exile (and then pursued them in their countries of exile). Incoming Tutsi have appropriated Hutu owned land. When considered strategic, the RPF allowed the killing of Tutsis. Dallaire writes that their deaths can also be laid “at the door of the military genius, Kagame, who did not speed up his campaign when the scale of genocide became clear and even talked candidly with me at several points about the price his fellow Tutsi might have to pay for the cause”. Kagame refused Dallaire’s proposal to accept ceasefire to stop the massacre, because it did not suit Kagame’s grand design of Tutsi hegemony. He has been quoted as criticising people who see the war in terms of human rights. He has said that some conflicts are good, “a sort of purification” which “erupt in order to make a real transformation possible”.

The Rwanda regime relies on power structures that sometimes run parallel to, and sometimes crosscut, the formal government; and in which the army plays a central role. The country has relied heavily for its revenue (to fund its institutions and elite) on plunder of the mineral resources of the DRC.

Mode of extraction

It bears the primary responsibility for the political and economic instability in the Great Lakes Region (including the overthrow of the Congolese government), which is functional to its mode of extraction of wealth and its regional dominance.

It practises, and has contributed to, a complex, regional regime of illegal economic transactions, evasion of UN sanctions, arming of militias, criminal business organisations, and disregard of neighbours’ borders and fiscal systems, which has greatly impoverished the region.

The RPF has used an extraordinary amount of violence, domestically and internationally. It has killed several thousands Hutus, citizens and others, and is responsible for the deaths of even more through displacement, malnutrition and hunger. It has denied hundreds of thousands of children the opportunity of education, and deprived millions of family and community life. It has conscripted child soldiers. The UN has voluminously documented these practices and repeatedly chastised Rwanda for its irresponsible behaviour in the DRC. Beneath the gentility of RPF leaders, the tidiness of Kigali, and its gleaming high rise buildings, I found a country deeply fragmented, operating under the hegemony of a small Tutsi political elite, which rules through oppression and fear.

Effective Public Relations

I discovered that these leaders are extraordinarily effective at public relations, especially as directed at the West, and make the most of the guilt in the West for doing so little to prevent the terrible genocide in 1994, directed largely but not exclusively at the Tutsi.

[The report of the CHRI can be found at http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/hradvocacy/rwanda’s_application_for_membership_of_the_commonwealth.pdf%5D

Prof Ghai is a former CKRC Chaiman

Read all about: Rwanda Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative genocide Hutu Tutsi

Advertisements

Posted in RWANDA POLITICS | 4 Comments »

WHO WILL SAVE RWANDA FROM THIS WOLF?

Posted by rwandaonline on January 7, 2009

RWANDA IN THE PAST AND THE PRESENT FOR THE FUTURE OF RWANDANS BRIEFED HISTORY OF रवांडा

To understand what I am talking about you must have a bit of Rwanda’s history. The land of Rwanda was inhabited since around 800 years. the first people to come to Rwanda were pigyms from Ituli forest they were hunters and gatherers. They were occupied with their hunting skills. they discovered a land lying next to the lake of Kivu. they came hunting and found plenty of animals. they decided to settle in the North near Mount Kalisimbi. these are Batwa of Ruhengeri and Gisenyi. Another group went after their prey up to the Mount Mukura where they settled near the forest of Nyugwe. This are Batwa We find in Gitarama,Gikongoro, and Kibuye of Rutsiro. This is a brief history of the first settlers in Rwanda. The second group of people to settle in Rwanda are Hutus who are from the bantu group of Cameroon. This group came down the river Congo following a fertile land to farm. They found beautiful hills in the East side of Ituli forest near Virunga forest. They came farming as they could also enjoy the horizon beauty of this land. They used to stay on the top of the hills. They wanted more land to farm. they spread southward. some groups went behind the volcanoes of Muhabura,Gahinga, and Sabyinyo. Others southward and crossed river Nyabarongo, Akanyaru,and Kagera. They settled in the savan land of Karagwe. Those who went toward Bunyoro, they settled in Bufumbira. These were the second settlers of Rwanda. Then came the third group. This is the group of people who originated from South Egypt and South West of Ethiopia. They were herders and pastoralists. This group some historians and Anthropologists confuse it with some Nilotes but the truth is that they share nothing in common. They came from the Horn of Africa and walked eastward looking for green pastures to flock their cattles. they found beautiful land extending from Ankole, Rutchuru, Masisi, Murera, and Rukiga in Rwanda then they spread Southward to the west of Rwanda. They propered because this land had minimal Tsetse Fly to interfere with their livestock. This is a third and last group to settle in Rwanda. All these three groups met in Rwanda not by any invitation but because of the Economic Migration that forced three of them to in search of greener pastures in the wealthy region of Central Africa near to the Western Great Rift. because of this forced immigration none of them should feel superior than the other because none of them should claim to have discovered Rwanda. May be the credit should instead be given to the Batwa (Pigmies) from the Ituli forest since the history tells us that they are the first to settlein Rwanda. Otherwise the rest both Hutus and Tutsis found Mr. Twa already settled in the land. The only social failure is that they were not concerned with social structures but social communion where none of them was bothered by authoritative structures. It was enough for them to know that age matters. Whoever was oldest than the other deserved an automatic respect from the later comers. He/She was not concerned of using such privilege to oppress the rest but to protect them. The younger ones used to find peace and comfort from their elders. That was a Twa society. Among all these three tribes, the Hutus are the majority with 85% followed by the Tutsis who are 14%, and Twa 1%. When the Hutus came to settle in the Thousand Hills Land, they established an informal administration which was a bit elaborated than the one of their indigenous brothers from the Ituli forest. They had what we call “ABAHINZA for UMUHINZA in sigular. This was someone who was to oversee the welbeing of the community. He was chosen based on his roles to solving, advising, and making wise decisions concerning matters that could arise from the community. These people were much respected in the society. They helped to ensure that there was a harmony between these two communities. This went for centuries until the coming of Tutsis who were pastolists and herders. Tutsis believed that they were the only to rule not the others. They believed to be superior and the rest to be subordinates. This ended the harmonious rule of Hutus and Tutsis. Tutsis came and killed all the Hutu leaders who were there as ABAHINZA. Then they hanged them to the log and were eaten by voltures. After killing the ABAHINZA, the Tutsis instored their own Kings like those ones who used to rule in the Horn of Africa. This Kings were called ABAMI in prural and UMWAMI in sigular. This people were so crual until they could use fattened Hutu children to stand up to address to the public. This made this Tutsi kings look ferocious and cruals. After killing Hutu elders and putting themselves to power. They invensted dictatorship using their cows. They believed that only them who were entittled to owning and giving out cows. They asked those who wanted to own cows for their milk and cheese, to come and serve in their household for years. This led to the genesis of slavery among Rwandan community. Those who wanted cows could do a hardwork in the Tutsis courtyards for years and years just to be rewarded one cow. This went on for more than 500 years untill Africa started hosting another uninvited race. This is the time that Europeans colonized Africa from 1,700AC. The germany was given Rwanda,Burundi, and Tanzania as East Africa Germany until the time when Germans were defeated then Rwanda and Burundi were handed over to Belgians as a protectorate states. When the Belgians took over, they fostered the Tutsi ideology by favoring them than their countrymen Hutus and Tutsis. They described Tutsis to be taller than the rest thus they should be supported to enslave the rest. This went on for years until some Hutus and Twas who had accessed education through religious institutions got enlightened to what was happening around the continent and they statred fighting for the independence of Rwanda. This period led to the UN sponsored referandum which gave the country the 1962 independence. The Hutu got power through the peaceful revolution and Tutsis feared a perceived revenge due to what they did to Hutus. Some Tutsis remained in Rwanda but who were closer to power fled the country and went to settle in neighboring countries such as Uganda, where the majority went to, Zaire, Burundi, and Tanzania. These Tutsis in exile didn’t stop to try their luck by invading Rwanda to topple down the Hutu regime. The first timwe they invaded Rwanda was in 1967 just 5 years after independence. They attacked from the south of Rwanda in a region ccalled Bugesera. This is because, this people had a support from their Tutsi brothers who were ruling in Burundi. Their attemp was futile because they were defeated and went underground for a decade. In 1977 they came back in the Nyungwe forest. This is still in the south of Rwanda. This is the time they nicknamed themselves as INYENZI (Cockroaches). Because, they liked attacking in the middle of the night the same way Cockroaches bite people in the middle of the ight when there is no light. They were defeated again then went for several years. This time some of us where not yet born. We even forgot about the issue of tribes and most of our generation started intermarrying with Tutsis though it was very hard for a young male Tutsi to marry a young famale Hutu because of their ideology of superiority. the young male Tutsis did not have many problems mingling with Hutu females only that they feared to take our sisters to their families because it was regarded as a Taboo. On the 1st of October 1990, the Tutsi movement of Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) composed by young generation some of whom do not even know when they parents left Rwanda, they took arms and attacked Rwanda with the ideology of revenge of what Hutus did to their parents three decades ago. They got support from leaders who come from Rwanda but ruling other countries such as President Museveni of Uganda among others. They also used the loophole filled up with the greediness of the USA interest in Zaire minerals. They found favor in the leadership of Bill Clinton who was the President of USA with his AFRICOM foreign policy (http://www.globalresearch.ca/ F. William Engdahl: Research Associate and the Center for Globalization and author of ‘A Century of War) I remember I was a standard 4 primary pupil at a village Primary School of Busogo. I heard people taling about it I did not understand what it meant to attack Rwanda. Some of the older people were narrating the story of those who fled independence and now their sons wanted to come back and take back the power by whichever means. I could not understand why this people were not happy with independence which was put in place by UN. Some days after I started watching photos of maimed people, beheaded children, and pregnant women who had been aborted because their unborn babies were Hutus. It was a puzzleing riddle, and confusion swandwitched by politics of divided and confused Hutus of Big Stomaches such as Twagiramungu Faustin nicknamed Rukokoma (Grand Mass Protest) that he used to call to paralyze the Habyalimana’s leadership. It went on for some years then here came negotiation in Arusha Tanzania sponsored by African Union Organization (AUO) and UN. The RPF movement of Tutsis was given 40% in power sharing just for the sake of the much needed Peace. But the Tutsis because they were backed by USA and they had assurance of taking over the country at whatever cost, they refused power sharing though they comprise 14% of the entire population of Rwanda. They went on with the attacks and preparation and violated the ceasefire brokered by a struggling and shaky AUO. THE ORIGIN OF RWANDAN GENOCIDE On 6th of April 1994, the Tutsis backed by Uganda, President Nyerere of Tanzania, Buyoya of Burundi, and Bill Clinton of USA, decided to violate the ceasefire and trushed the peace accords signed in Arusha. They refused to take 40% allocated to them because they were sure of taking over the whole nation, and fulfill USA mission of establishing AFRICOM Command to Africa. They shot down the plane which was carrying two Hutu Presidents: Habyaliman Juvenal of Rwanda, and Ntaryamira Cyprien of Burundi. This sudden death of Juvenal Habyalimana crashed a fragile ceasefire and sparked a massacre of Tutsis and and moderate Hutus whom were believed to be allies of RPF. This masacre was a trap that USA and RPF set in order to portray Hutus to the world to be cruel and merciless, animal beings. This could lead to the whole world to curse and isolate all Hutus wherever they are. The RPF and Clinton government succeeded to draw Hutus into their bloody plan. The Habyalimana’s plane was downed, the people poured into the streets killing Tutsis and moderate Hutus, because they feared that if RPF got power, it could enslave all Hutus. However, little did they know that this killing would make their become the reality. The 1994 Rwanda massacre brought to an end the Hutu rule which they had fought for many years to bring independence to Rwanda. The whole world saw Hutus as criminals and ruthless species thanks to Clinton government, though Hutus reacted to the pre-planed act of killing Habyalimana. Instead of taking the RPF leadership to the Terrorism Court such as Guantenamo Bay those who shot down the two presidents, the international community started a witch hunt of all educated Hutus as a rapid action to counter the truth and fear that they could expose the true genesis of what happened. After succeeding to depict all Hutus as murderers, killers and genocidaires, the clinton government handed over Rwanda to Kagame and his tribesmen. Millions of Hutus landed into the wilderness of Kibumba-Goma in Eastern Zaire. RWANDAN REFUGEES IN GOMA REFUGEE CAMPS In Goma, hundreds of thousands of Hutu refugees died from the poisoned food and drinking which was contaminated by RPF infilitrators who were in Goma selling food and drinking water. more than 200,000 people died from this planed disguised RPF murder. while in Rwanda the Tutsis were mourning for theirs who died because of the Kagame’s thirst of power, beyond the borders her children were dying like flies, and nobody cared because it was universally believed that all Hutus had committed massacre. Unlike the Rwandese saying “Imana Yirwanda Yilirwa Ahandi Igataha Irwanda,”meaning the Rwandese God spends His day elsewhere but He spends His Night in Rwanda, this God of Rwandans had completely gone for the day and forgot to come back for the night. People were helplessly crying for help from nowhere. those who survived the RPF poison in Goma, they went to the interior of Zaire (DRC) to hide from the oppression of RPF, UN,USA,and UNHCR. Those who remained in the camps were exposed to daily threats and intimidation from UNHCR. The UNHCR reduced the food ratios from day to day to force them to go back to Rwanda and face the Butcherer (RPF). THE RPF VENDETTA PARTY AGAINST HUTUS IN DRC In October1996, the RPF backed by USA government invaded the refugee camps of Bukavu, Nyangezi, and Goma in the Eastern DRC. This marked the beginning of real Hutu massacre. According to UN report, nearly 3M Hutus from Rwanda and Eastern DRC were killed in Zaire (DRC). The RPF soldiers were doing a triage of young people from the elderly ones, putting the young people to the right and the elderly people to the left. Those who were on the right side who were generally young enabled people were slaughtered in Sake, and Kibati in Goma, and the elderly were sent home. Those who managed to escape the RPF sword in Goma took the dense forest of Ituli from Goma to Masisi, Walikale, Hamisi, Tingi Tingi, Lubutu, Kisangani, Ubundu, Opala, Ubundu-Opala-Ikela-Bokungu-Boende-Bandaka-Ingende-Bikoro-Irebu-Lukolela in Congo Brazaville. Very few Hutu refugees who managed to survive the RPF massacre. In all this none ever questioned the RPF killing, to them it is a crime to kill a Tutsi and Okay to kill Hutu. A Hutu deserves to be hunt by sword while a Tutsi deserves a protective justice. This is visible in what UN manufactured as the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda which is supposed to try all Hutu intellectuals wherever they are to give justice to Tutsis who invaded a sovereign Rwanda in 1990s and killed Hutus untill they were tired to kill ordinary citizens and decided to kill two Hutu presidents, and until today they have not been brought to justice. To understand well what has happened, and what is happening in Rwanda now, one needs to read Nick McKenzie Uncovering Rwanda’s secrets – World – theage.com.au, and UN ‘shut down’ Rwanda probe – World – theage.com.au.
THE BIASNESS OF INTERNATIONA CRIMINAL COURT AGAINST HUTUS
If the international community wanted a real peace in the Great Lakes Region, if it wants true democracy in the region, if it wants to have a lasting solution in the region, all the people who committed crime against humanity must be brought to books to answer their charges. All blood shed is blood whether in Rwanda, Burundi, or DRC. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) has since its inception been biased in applying justice. It has been a shame to the law practioners who have spent years overlooking the truth which is nothing else but truth and hunting Hutus only instead of using the court mandate of bringing all the people who committed crimes against humanity in Rwanda from 1991 to 1995. Now the ICTR has been nicknamed “NANGABAHUTU” meaning I HATE HUTUS by fellow Rwandans who sees the court as the promotion of hatred among Rwandan communities. What UN and USA should understand is that none is going to force Hutus or Tutsis to succumb to political and power hungry motivations.
If the international community does not want to see a mass revolution in region, they should help the Rwandan administration to put in place a people’s constitution. This is a constitution that will give power to the people and protect the minority. This is a constitution that will recognize that Rwanda has three tribes: Hutus,Tutsis, and Twas. This constitution should be able to protect all the Rwandan citizens regardless of their ethnic background. This would be a constitution that recognizes and respect the history of Rwanda, it s evolution, and its integrity. This will help to restructure Rwandan communities and make them live in harmony with the respect to each other THE NEXT POSTINGS ARE GOING TO DEAL WITH WHAT HAPPENED, ISHAPPENING IN RWANDA

Posted in RWANDA POLITICS | Leave a Comment »