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What they don’t tell you about Rwanda

Posted by rwandaonline on October 27, 2009

What they don’t tell you about Rwanda

 

Published on 04/10/2009

 

By Yash Ghai

Rwanda enjoys a positive reputation internationally and its President Paul Kagame is regularly praised by the World Bank, the US, and UK administrations for his integrity, efforts at reconciliation, and economic policies. I was impressed by his advice to Kenyans at the national prayer breakfast last May to follow his government’s example of commitment to ethnic diversity, consensus building on the common good, national values, and inclusion of all political views in national life and development agenda.

When I visited Rwanda at the request of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative to do a report on the state of human rights and democracy in Rwanda (in connection with Rwanda’s application to join the Commonwealth) my first impressions, despite some critical reports I had read, were favourable: Very efficient and courteous processing of incoming passengers, a safe, clean and well organised Kigali, and bright and suave officials.

However, I was put on guard when every non-official person I interviewed, diplomats, journalists, professionals, and local and international civil society officers, would not speak to me except on assurances of anonymity.

When I read the constitution, I found no mention of ethnic or religious groups, and came across legislation, which banned discussion of ethnicity (yet huge government posters reminded people of the “genocide against the Tutsi”, although of course many Hutus had also been massacred). Those who imply that Kagame’s Rwanda Patriotic Front had killed Hutus unnecessarily are heavily penalised, as are those who question official accounts of the genocide. This hardly fits with Kagame’s advocacy of reconciliation, inclusion or coming to terms with the past.

Exiled hutus

Reading numerous reports of the UN Security Council, UNHCR or international NGOs, memoirs of some key Rwandan politicians and of the commander of the UN forces Romeo Dallaire, and scholarly literature, I learnt that, though of course the Tutsi had suffered greatly at the hands of a large number of Hutus, the RPF had also killed thousands of Hutus, and driven many to exile (and then pursued them in their countries of exile). Incoming Tutsi have appropriated Hutu owned land. When considered strategic, the RPF allowed the killing of Tutsis. Dallaire writes that their deaths can also be laid “at the door of the military genius, Kagame, who did not speed up his campaign when the scale of genocide became clear and even talked candidly with me at several points about the price his fellow Tutsi might have to pay for the cause”. Kagame refused Dallaire’s proposal to accept ceasefire to stop the massacre, because it did not suit Kagame’s grand design of Tutsi hegemony. He has been quoted as criticising people who see the war in terms of human rights. He has said that some conflicts are good, “a sort of purification” which “erupt in order to make a real transformation possible”.

The Rwanda regime relies on power structures that sometimes run parallel to, and sometimes crosscut, the formal government; and in which the army plays a central role. The country has relied heavily for its revenue (to fund its institutions and elite) on plunder of the mineral resources of the DRC.

Mode of extraction

It bears the primary responsibility for the political and economic instability in the Great Lakes Region (including the overthrow of the Congolese government), which is functional to its mode of extraction of wealth and its regional dominance.

It practises, and has contributed to, a complex, regional regime of illegal economic transactions, evasion of UN sanctions, arming of militias, criminal business organisations, and disregard of neighbours’ borders and fiscal systems, which has greatly impoverished the region.

The RPF has used an extraordinary amount of violence, domestically and internationally. It has killed several thousands Hutus, citizens and others, and is responsible for the deaths of even more through displacement, malnutrition and hunger. It has denied hundreds of thousands of children the opportunity of education, and deprived millions of family and community life. It has conscripted child soldiers. The UN has voluminously documented these practices and repeatedly chastised Rwanda for its irresponsible behaviour in the DRC. Beneath the gentility of RPF leaders, the tidiness of Kigali, and its gleaming high rise buildings, I found a country deeply fragmented, operating under the hegemony of a small Tutsi political elite, which rules through oppression and fear.

Effective Public Relations

I discovered that these leaders are extraordinarily effective at public relations, especially as directed at the West, and make the most of the guilt in the West for doing so little to prevent the terrible genocide in 1994, directed largely but not exclusively at the Tutsi.

[The report of the CHRI can be found at http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/hradvocacy/rwanda’s_application_for_membership_of_the_commonwealth.pdf%5D

Prof Ghai is a former CKRC Chaiman

Read all about: Rwanda Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative genocide Hutu Tutsi

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4 Responses to “What they don’t tell you about Rwanda”

  1. Claude said

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  2. Jules said

    I’ve heard this list will be updated twice a year. But who is making this list ???? That’s the big question!!!!

  3. Ignace said

    Criminel du FPR. Pour plus d’information visiter le site suivant:

    http://cprgla.chez.com/dossiers/criminelsFPR.html

    1. SHALITA Willis :
    2. KIMENYI Alexandre: *
    3. NTARE Simon: *
    4. MUSARE Faustin: *
    5. NDAYAMBAJE Damas: *
    6. ABIMANA Mathias: *
    7. RUTAYISIRE Wilson (Major): *
    8. HIGIRO Prosper: *
    9. KAYONGA Charles (Colonel): *
    10. RUTAREMARA Tite: *
    11. MUTIKIRI Mathias: *
    12. RWABUKAMBA Vénuste: *
    13. MUVUNYI Augustin: *
    14. RUTAZIBWA Privat (Abbé): *
    15. KAGAME Paul (Général-Major): *
    16. KARAKE KARENZI (Colonel): *
    17. MUROKORE (Lieutenant-Colonel): *
    18. GAKUBA Théodore (Lieutenant): *
    19. RUZIBIZA James (Capitaine): *
    20. IBINGIRA Fred (Colonel): *
    21. HAVUGIMANA Emmanuel (Sergent): *
    22. CAMARADE Innocent (Sergent): *
    23. NGAMIJE Pie (Sergent): *
    24. UWAMUNGU Jacques (Caporal): *
    25. RUTSINDURA Epimaque: *
    26. NSAGUYE Wellars: *
    27. RURANGIRWA Jean-Damascène: *
    28. COSMA (Lieutenant): *
    29. MURENZI (Lieutenant): *
    30. NGABOYISONGA Kizito: *
    31. RUGAMBWA (Major): *
    32. KABERA Assiel: *
    33. GATERA (sous-lieutenant): *
    34. MUSHIMIRE Eric (Soldat de l’APR) : *
    35. RURANGANGABO Anselme: *
    36. OKWIRE (Capitaine): *
    37. KALISA (Afandi, Lieutenant ou sous-lieutenant): *
    38. DIEUDONNE: *
    39. ZIGIRA (Major): *
    40. DANY (Capitaine): *
    41. BAGABO (Lieutenant): *
    42. MBANDA Steven: *
    43. MUHIGIRWA Jean Bosco (Lieutenant): *
    44. KAZINTWALI KADAFI (Lieutenant-Colonel): *
    45. RUKWAKWA Joseph (Capitaine): *
    46. KABANDA Charles: *
    47. MUGEMANGANGO Paul: *
    48. RUKANGIRA Emmanuel: *
    49. BINGINKOMO Augustin: *
    50. KANYESHYAMBA: *
    51. MUHIRE Egide (Militaire de l’APR) : *
    52. KABERA Cyprien: *
    53. RUTAREMARA Jill (Capitaine): *
    54. KAJEGUHAKWA Valens: *
    55. SAM KAKA alias KANYEMERA (Colonel): *
    56. KAZURA (Major): *
    57. NZIZA Jackson alias NKURUNZIZA Jacques (Major): *
    58. GASHAYIJA (Officier ‘Afandi’ de l’APR). *
    59. ADAMO (Lieutenant) : *
    60. MUTERAHEJURU Gilbert (Militaire de l’APR): *
    61. KALISA Martin : *
    62. BOSCO (sous-lieutenant de l’APR): *
    63. BAGABO (Lieutenant): *
    64. KIZURI et JOSELINE: *
    65. TWAGIRA: *
    66. RWAKAGEYO: *
    67. KABANDA Ildephonse: *
    68. KARENZI Gilbert: *
    69. MUGABO Innocent: *
    70. BAYIHORERE Idrissa et HARUNA: *
    71. MUKALIMBA Gloriose alias MAMA DIDI: *
    72. RUZIMA: *
    73. NICYABERA Béatrice: *
    74. KAYITARE: *
    75. NGOGA Charles (Colonel): *
    76. ZIMURINDA Jean-Bosco (Sous-Lieutenant): *
    77. MUGABO Francis: *
    78. NKUBITO (Major): *
    79. KWIKILIZA (Major): *
    80. GAKWERERE (Capitaine): *
    81. KABERA (sous-lieutenant): *
    82. RUGIRA (Lieutenant): *
    83. BAGIRE (Colonel): *
    84. KABUYE Rose (Major): *
    85. SEKAMANA Jean-Damascène (Major Gendarme): *
    86. GUMISILIZA (Major): *
    87. KARERA Denis (Major): *
    88. BIRASA John (Major): *
    89. MUHATSE Ignace : *
    90. GAHIMA Gérard: *
    91. NZARAMBA (Colonel): *
    92. RUTEMBESA (Soldat): *
    93. RWANYINDO: *
    94. BIZIMANA (Soldat): *
    95. KARAKE Assoumani: *
    96. KAGABO Amini: *
    97. Maman KEZA: *
    98. MUSONI Protais: *
    99. BIHOZAGARA Jacques: *
    100. MAZIMPAKA Patrick: *
    101. KAYUMBA NYAMWASA (Général de brigade): *

  4. Ignace said

    Quelque criminels du FPR (Some RPF criminals)

    La liste va continuer

    1.KAGAME PAUL, President
    2.JAMES KABAREBE, Yishe impunzi zari i Kibumba muli Congo
    3.KAYUMBA NYAMWASA
    4.KARENZI KARAKE, Yategaga ibisasu muli za 1993-1994 bikitwa ibya guverinema Habyarimana; niwe watangaga amafaranga agura ibyitso mu mujyi wa Kigali
    5.FRED IBINGIRA, Ubwicanyi bwa Kibeho, Byumba, Kibungo, Gitarama, n’urupfu rw’Abasemyeri I Gakurakuzo
    6.RWAHAMA JACKSON MUTABASI
    7.JACKSON NKURUNZIZA, aka JACK NZIZA
    8.RUGUMYA GACINYA
    9.DAN MUNYUZA, Yashatse kwica Gen Kayumba Nyamwasa kuko batinya ko azabavamo
    10.CHARLES KAYONGA
    11.JOSEPH NZABAMWITA
    12.CEASAR KAYIZARI
    13.ERIK MUROKORE
    14.DENYS KARERA
    15.EVARISTE KABARISA
    16.JUSTUS MAJYAMBERE – Yishe abaturage
    17.EVARISTE KARENZI
    18. ALEX KAGAME
    19. CHARLES MUSITU
    20.GASANA RURAYI
    21.SAMUEL KANYEMERA aka SAM KAKA
    22.WILSON GUMIRIZA (umufasha wa Ibingira mu kwica abahutu I Kibeho, Byumba…)
    23.AUGUSTIN GASHAYIJA
    24.TWAHIRWA DODO
    25.FIRMIN BAYINGANA
    26.WILLY BAGABE
    27.WILSON NGABONZIZA
    28.SAMUEL KARENZEZI alias VIKI,caporal
    29.JOACHIM HABIMANA
    30. KARARA MISINGO
    31.ALPHONSE KAJE
    32.FRANK BAKUNZI
    33.DAN GAPFIZI
    34.JOHN BUTERA
    35.CHARLES KARAMBA
    36.MATAYO,cpt
    37.PETER KALIMBA
    38.SILAS UDAHEMUKA
    39.STEVEN BALINDA
    40.JOHN BAGABO
    41.GODEFROID NTUKAYAJYEMO alias KIYAGO,capt
    42. SHABANI RUTA, uzwi kuli radio Muhabura
    43.RICHARD RUTATINA, Yamaze impunzi z’abahutu muli RDC agafatanya na IBINGIRA mu bwicanyi bwose : Kibeho, Byumba, etc..
    44. GATETE
    45. NDAHIRO EMMANUEL
    46.RUVUSHA
    47.KANGUGO
    48.MUBARAK MUGANGA
    49.CHARLES NGOGA, Yamaze abaturage abarasamo atarobanuye mu gihe cya 1994
    50.GACINYA RUGUMYA, Yishe abasivili abarasamo atsemba atarobanuye
    51.RUCAGU BONIFACE, Yari umukaraza wa MRND na FPR mu gihe kimwe akicisha abatutsi ngo ari gukorera MRND, akishisha abahutu bo muli MDR ngo ubwo arakorera MRND ariko mu by’ukuli akorera FPR.
    52.TOM NDAHIRO
    53.LOUISE MUSHIKIWABO
    54.MUGESERA ANTOINE, ideologue wa FPR
    55.MARTIN NGOGA, Gushinja ibinyoma by’ingengabitekerezo abanenga ubutegetsi bubi bwa Kigali bose
    56. OLIVIER NDUHUNIREHE RWEMALIKA
    57.MUKAMANA ESPERANCE, umunyamabanga nshingabikorwa muli MUGANZA ukorera Kagame mu kwicisha abaturage inzara
    58.PAUL JULES NDAMAGE, umuyobozi w’akarere ka Kicukiro mu by’imiturire mu mujyi, shinzwe kwangaza abaturage akabatesha amazu biyubakiye ngo bapfe nabi
    59.DUKUNDIMANA ESPERANCE,umuyobozi w’umurenge wa NYAMYUMBA muli Gisenyi: kwicisha abaturage mu karere ka Nyamyumba bazira ko batatoye abakandida ashaka hamwe n’ubutegetsi.
    60. GAKURU J. BOSCO na KABILE MARCEL: abakozi b’uwo DUKUNDIMANA ESPERANCE mu bwicanyi
    61. JAMES MUSONI, Gusahura igihugu
    63. MANASSEH NSHUTI, Gusahura igihugu
    64. ROSE KABUYE
    65. JACOB TUMWINE
    66. FRANK NZIZA
    67. ERIC HAKIZIMANA, Yari G2 muri DMI
    68. CLEMENTINE NIYIBIZI, Gukubita abaturage
    69. RICHARD RUTATINA
    70. DENIS KARERA, Yishe abaturage
    71. JEANNETTE KAGAME, Gukanyaga abanyarwanda
    72. AGNES BINAGWAHO, Minisitiri w’ubuvuzi ushinjwa gukona abakene b’abahutu ngo batazongera kubyara.
    73. CONSTANCE MUKAYUHI RWAKA, Akorana na Jeannette Kagame mu gusahura umutungo wa rubanda
    74. JEAN DE DIEU MUCYO, Yamaze abahutu b’i butare muri 1994
    Lisiti izakomeza

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